They also denied the divinity of Jesus, stressed the essential goodness of human nature, proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works, and pictured God as a loving father rather than a stern creator. Why didn't Roosevelt's supporters get seats at the convention? Bankers pardoned personal loans and mortgages, President Hoover warned Americans to stop investing, Investors raced to get their money out of the stock market, The responsibilities of the federal government, Local relief programs and private charities, Banks pardoned thousands of farm mortgages, Hoovervilees sprang up in the nation's cities, Most industries gave top jobs to married women, Took low-paying jobs previously held by white workers. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. When Stuart was painting these portraits, the former president had grown old and lost some teeth. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a member of the women's right's movement in 1840. John Brown, an abolitionist leader, led an attack (the Pottawatomie Massacre) on proslavery settlers in response to proslavery raids on antislavery settlers. H lived from 1826 to 1864.

Abraham Lincoln switched from the Whig Party to the Republican party because he supported stopping the spread of slavery.

He campaigned for better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. [image]. This book made Irving world renown. Arthur’s melodramatic novel, Early foes of Demon Drink adopted two major lines of attack, One was to stiffen the individual’s will to resist the wiles of the little brown jug; the moderate reformers thus stressed “temperance” rather than “teetotalism,” or the total elimination of intoxicants; zealots believed that temptation be removed by legislation, Prominent among this group was Neal S. Dow of Maine, a blue-nosed reformer who, as a mayor of Portland and employer of labor, had often witnessed effects of alcohol, Dow—the “Father of Prohibition”—sponsored the so-called Maine Law of 1851 which hailed as “the law of Heaven Americanized,” prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor; other states in the North followed Maine’s example and by 1857 about a dozen had passed various prohibitory laws against alcohol, But still within a decade some of statues were repealed or declared unconstitutional, It was clearly impossible to legislate thirst for alcohol out of existence yet on the eve of the Civil War, the prohibitionists had registered inspiring gains (less drinking among women and probably much less per capita consumption of hard liquor), Yet American women, fared better than their European cousins; in France, rape was punished only lightly whereas in America it was one of the few capital crimes, Women were still “the submerged sex” in America in the early part of the century and in contrast to women in colonial times, many women now avoided marriage (10%), Gender differences were strongly emphasized in 19, Women were thought to be physically and emotionally weak, but also artistic and refine; endowed with finely tuned moral sensibilities, they were the keepers of society’s conscience, with special responsibility to teach the young how to be good, Men were considered strong but crude, always in danger of slipping into some savage or beastly way of life if not guided by the gentle hands of their loving ladies, The home was a woman’s special sphere, the centerpiece of the “cult of domesticity” but some women more felt that the glorified sanctuary of the home was in fact a gilded cage, Clamorous female reformers began to gather strength as the century neared its halfway point; most were broad-gauge battlers, while demanding rights for women, they joined in the reform movement of the age, fighting for temperance and the abolition of slavery, The women’s rights movement was mothered by a few women including Lucretia Mott, a sprightly Quaker whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London antislavery convention of 1840 were not recognized, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who had insisted on leaving “obey” out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going far as to advocate suffrage for women, Quaker-reared Susan B. Anthony, a militant lecturer for women’s rights, became such conspicuous advocate of female rights that progressive women were called “Suzy Bs”, Other feminists challenged the men such as Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female graduate of a medical college, precocious Margaret Fuller who edited a transcendentalist journal (The Dial) and took part to bring unity and republican government to Italy, The talented Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina, championed antislavery; Lucy Stone retained her maiden name after marriage and Amelia Bloomer revolted against current “street sweeping” female attire by donning a semi-masculine short skirt with “bloomers”, Fighting feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York, in a memorable Woman’s Rights Convention; the defiant Stanton read a “Declaration of Sentiment,” which in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence declared that “all men and women are created equal”, One resolution formally demanded the ballot for females; amid denunciation from press and pulpit, the Seneca Falls meeting launched the modern women’s rights movement, In the decade before the Civil War, any white male over the age of 21 could vote; women were gradually being admitted to colleges and some states, beginning with Mississippi in 1839, were even permitting wives to won property after marriage, Bolstered by the utopian spirit of the age, various reformers set up more than forty communities of a cooperative, communistic, or “communitarian” nature, Seeking human betterment, a wealthy and idealistic Scottish textile manufacturer, Robert Owen, founded in 1825 a communal society of about a thousand people at New Harmony, Indiana; little harmony prevailed in the colony, which attracted visionaries, radicals, theorists, and scoundrels, and the colony sank into confusion, Brook Farm in Massachusetts, comprising two hundred acres of grudging soil, was started in 1841 with cooperation of about twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism; the venture collapsed in debt after a building burned, A more radical experiment was the Oneida Community, founded in New York in 1848; it practiced free love (“complex marriage”), birth control (, Various communistic experiments, mostly small in scale, have been attempted since Jamestown but in competition with democratic free enterprise and free land, virtually all of them failed or changed their methods (among the longest lasting were the Shakers), Led by Mother Ann Lee, they began in the 1770s to set up a religious communities; the Shakers attained a membership of about six thousand in 1840, but since their monastic customs prohibited both marriage and sexual relations they were extinct by 1940, Early Americans, confronted with pioneering problems, were more interested in practical gadgets than in pure science; Jefferson was a gifted amateur inventor and noteworthy were the writings of mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch on practical navigation and of oceanographer Matthew F. Maury on ocean winds and currents (safety, speed, economy), But as far as basic science was concerned, Americans were best known for borrowing and adapting the findings of Europeans, yet the Republic was not without scientific talent, The most influential American scientist of the first half of the 19, Professor Louis Agassiz, a distinguished French-Swiss immigrant, served for a quarter of a century at Harvard College as a path-breaking student of biology, Professor Asa Gray of Harvard College published 350 books, monographs and papers, Lovers of American bird lore owed much to the French-descended naturalist John J. Audubon, who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat (, Medicine in America, despite a steady growth of medical schools, was still primitive by modern standards; bleeding remained a common cure, and a curse as well, Smallpox plagues were still dreaded, and the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia took several thousand lives (daily cries of corpse-wagon drivers), People everywhere complained of ill health—malaria, the “rheumatics,” the “miseries,” and the chills; illness often resulted from improper diet, hurried eating, perspiring and cooling off too rapidly, and ignorance of germs and sanitation, Life expectancy was still dismayingly short—about forty years for a white person born in 1850, and less for blacks; suffering from decayed teeth was enormous, Self-prescribed patent medicines were common, fad diets proved popular, among home remedies was the rubbing of tumors with dead toads, and the use of medicine by regular doctors was often harmful (victims of surgical operations were ordinarily tied down), Medical progress came in the early 1840s, when several American doctors and dentists, working independently, successfully employed laughing gas and ether as anesthetics, Architecturally, America contributed little of note in the first half of the century, The rustic Republic continued to imitate European models; public buildings and other important structures followed Greek and Roman lines, which seemed out of place, A remarkable Greek revival came between 1820 and 1850, partly stimulated by the heroic efforts of the Greeks in the 1820s to wrest independence from the  “Turks”; about mid-century strong interest developed in a revival of Gothic forms, Talented Thomas Jefferson, architect of revolution, was probably the ablest American architect of his generation (he brought a classical design to his Monticello home), The art of painting continued to be handicapped; it suffered from the dollar-grabbing of a raw civilization, from the hustle, bustle, and absence of leisure; from the lack of a wealthy class to sit for portraits—and then pay for them; some of the earliest painters were forced to go to England, where they found both training and patrons, Painting, like the theater, also suffered from the Puritan prejudice that art was a sinful waste of time—and often obscene; competent painters nevertheless emerged, Gilbert Stuart, a spendthrift Rhode Islander and one of the most gifted of the early group, wielded his brush in Britain in competition with the best artists, Charles Willson Peale painted some sixty portraits of Washington and John Trumbull, recaptured its scenes and spirit on scores of striking canvases, During the nationalistic upsurge after the War of 1812, American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes, The Hudson River school excelled in this type of art, At the same time, portrait painters gradually encountered some unwelcome competition from the invention of a crude photograph known as the, The painful truth was that the nation’s rough-hewn, pioneering civilization gave little encouragement to “polite” literature; much of the reading matter was imported, Busy conquering a continent, the Americans poured most of their creative efforts into practical outlets; praiseworthy were political essays like The Federalist of Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; pamphlets, like Thomas Paine’s Common Sense; and political orations, like masterpieces of Daniel Webster; Ben Franklin’s Autobiography was distinguished, A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the wave of nationalism that followed the War of Independence and especially the War of 1812, Washington Irving was the first American to win international recognition as a literary figure; he published in 1809 his, Europe was amazed at an American with a feather in his hand; turning to Spanish locales and biography, Irving interpreted America to Europe and Europe to America, James Fenimore Cooper was the first American novelist, as Washington Irving was the first general writer, to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable, Cooper launched out upon an illustrious career in 1821 with his second novel, The Spy—an absorbing tale of the American Revolution; his stories of the sea were meritorious and popular, but his fame rests mostly on the, James Fenimore Cooper’s novels had a wide sale among Europeans, some of whom came to think of all American people as born with tomahawk in hand, Actually Cooper was exploring the viability and destiny of America’s republican experiment, by contrasting the undefiled values of “natural men,” children of the wooded wilderness, with the artificiality of modern civilization, A third member of the Knickerbocker group in New York was the belated Puritan William Cullen Bryant; at 16, he wrote the meditative an melancholy “Thanatopsis,” which was one of the first high-quality poems produced in the United States, A golden age in American literature dawned in the second quarter of the 19, The transcendentalist movement of the 1830s resulted in part from a liberalizing of the straight-jacket Puritan theology; it also owed much to foreign influences, including the German romantic philosophers and the religions of Asia, The transcendentalists rejected the prevailing theory, derived from John Locke, that all knowledge comes to the mind through senses; truth, rather, “transcends” the sense: it cannot be found by observations alone—each person possesses an inner light that can illuminate highest truth and put him in direct touch with God, or the “Oversoul”, These mystical doctrines of transcendentalism had underlying concrete beliefs, Foremost was a stiff-backed individualism in matters religious as well as social, Closely associated was a commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline, These traits naturally bred hostility to authority and to formal institutions of any kind, as well as to all conventional wisdom; finally came exaltation of the dignity of the individual—the mainspring of a whole array of humanitarian reforms, Best known of the transcendentalists Boston-born Ralph Waldo Emerson, Trained as a Unitarian minister, he early forsook his pulpit and ultimately reached a wider audience by pen and platform (he was a favorite as a lyceum lecturer), His most thrilling public effort was a Phi Beta Kappa address, “The American Scholar,” which was an appeal that urged American writers to throw off European traditions and delve into the riches of their own backyards, Hailed as both a poet and a philosopher, Emerson was more influential as a practical philosopher and though his essays enriched countless thousands of humdrum lives, Catching the individualistic mood of the Republic, he stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, optimism, and freedom (ideals reflected expanding America), Henry David Thoreau was Emerson’s close associate—a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist; condemning a government that supported slavery, he refused to pay his Massachusetts poll tax and was jailed for a night, A gifted prose writer, he is well known for, Bold, brassy, and swaggering was the open-collared figure of Brooklyn’s Walt Whitman; in his famous collection of poems Leaves of Grass, he gave free rein to his genius, Highly romantic, emotional, and unconventional, he dispensed with titles, stanzas, rhymes, and at times even regular meter; he handled sex with shocking frankness, although he laundered his verses in later editions and his book was banned in Boston, Whitman’s Leaves of Grass was at first a financial failure; Leaves of Grass gained for Whitman the informal title “Poet Laureate of Democracy”; singing with transcendental abandon of his love for the masses, he caught the exuberant enthusiasm of an expanding America that had turned its back on the Old World, Professor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was one of the most popular poets in America, Longfellow, who for many years taught modern languages at Harvard College, lived a generally serene life except for the tragic deaths of two wives (he saw the 2, Writing for the genteel classes, he was adopted by the less cultured masses; his wide knowledge of European literature supplied him with many themes, but some of his most admired poems—“Evangeline,” “The Song of Hiawatha” and “The Courtship of Miles Standish”—were based on American traditions, Immensely popular in Europe, Longfellow was the only American ever to be honored with a bust in the Poets’ Corner of Westminster Abby, A fighting Quaker, John Greenleaf Whittier was the uncrowned poet laureate of the antislavery crusade; he was vastly more important in influencing social action, His poems cried aloud against inhumanity, injustice and intolerance against “the outworn rite, the old abuse, the pious fraud transparent grown”, Undeterred by insults and the stoning of mobs, Whittier helped arouse a calloused America on the slavery issue; Whittier was one of the moving forces of his generation, whether moral, humanitarian, or spiritual (poet of human freedom), Many-sided Professor James Russell Lowell, who succeeded Longfellow at Harvard, ranks as one of America’s better poets; he was also a distinguished essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat—a diffusion of talents that hampered his poetical output, Lowell is remembered as a political satirist in his, The scholarly Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, who taught anatomy at Harvard Medical School, was a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit; a nonconformist and a conversationalist, he shone among a group of literary lights in Boston (“The Last Leaf”), Two women writers whose work remain popular today were New England literary world, Louisa May Alcott grew up in Concord, Massachusetts, where transcendentalism existed, alongside neighbors Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller; her philosopher father left her to write Little Women and other books to support her mother and sisters, In Amherst, Massachusetts, poet Emily Dickinson lived as a recluse but created her own world through precious poetry; in deceptively spare language and simple rhyme schemes, she explored universal themes of nature, love, death, and immortality, Although she refused during her lifetime to publish any of her poems, when she sided, nearly two thousand of them were found among her papers and printed, The most noteworthy literary figure produced by the South before the Civil War, unless Edgar Allan Poe is regarded as a southerner, was novelist William Gilmore Simms, Quantitatively, he was great and he produced eighty-two books winning for him the title “the Cooper of the South”; his themes dealt with the southern frontier in colonial days and with the south during the Revolutionary War (neglected by own section), Not all writers in these years believed so keenly in human goodness and social progress, Edgar Allen Poe, orphaned at an early age in Virginia, cursed with ill health, and married to a child-wife of thirteen who fell fatally ill of tuberculosis, He suffered hunger, cold, poverty, and debt; failure at suicide, he took refuge in the bottle and dissipated his talent early; Poe was gifted lyric poet (“The Raven”), A master stylist, he also excelled in the short story, especially of the horror type, Poe was fascinated by the ghostly and ghastly, as in “The Fall of the House of Usher” and other stories; he reflected a morbid sensibility distinctly at odds with optimistic tone of American culture—for this reason, Poe was more prized by Europeans, His brilliant career was cut when he was found drink in a Baltimore gutter and died, Two other writers in America reflected the continuing Calvinist obsession with original sin and with the never-ending struggle better good and evil, In somber Salem, Massachusetts, writer Nathaniel Hawthorne grew up in an atmosphere heavy with the memories of his Puritan forebears and the tragedy of his father’s premature death on an ocean voyage; his masterpiece was.
Immigrant. Equally influential was Ohioan William H. Higher education was likewise stirring; the religious zeal of the Second Great Awakening led to the planting of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges (South and West), Too often they were academically anemic, established more to satisfy local pride than to advance the cause of learning; like their more venerable, ivy-draped brethren, the new colleges offered a narrow, tradition-bound curriculum of Latin, Greek, mathematics, and moral philosophy (little intellectual vitality and much boredom), The first state-supported universities sprang up in the South, beginning with North Carolina in 1795; federal land grants nourished the growth of state institutions of higher learning; conspicuous among the early group was the U of Virginia (1819), The University of Virginia was largely the brainchild of Thomas Jefferson, who designed its beautiful architecture and dedicated university to freedom from religious or political shackles, and modern languages and the sciences received emphasis, Women’s higher education was frowned upon in the early decades of the 19, A woman’s place was believed to be in the home, and training in needlecraft seemed more important than training in algebra; coeducation was regarded as frivolous, Prejudices also prevailed that too much learning injured the feminine brain, undermined health, and rendered women unfit for marriage, Women’s schools at the secondary level began to attain some respectability in the 1820s, thanks in part to the educated work of Emma Willard; in 1821 she established the Troy Female Seminary; Oberlin College, in Ohio, jolted traditionalists in 1837 when it opened its doors to women as well as men (Oberlin had already admitted black students), Adults who craved more learning satisfied their thirst for knowledge at private subscription libraries or, increasingly, at tax-supported libraries (traveling lecturers helped to carry learning to the masses through the lyceum lecture associations), Magazines flourished in the pre-Civil War years, but most of them withered after a short life; the, As the young Republic grew, reform campaigns of all types flourished in sometimes bewildering abundance; most reformers were intelligent, inspired idealists, The optimistic promises of the Second Great Awakening inspired people to battle earthly evils and modern idealists dreamed anew the old Puritan vision of a perfected society: free from cruelty, war, intoxicating drink, discrimination, and slavery, Women were particularly prominent in these reform crusades, especially in their own struggled for suffrage; for many middle-class women, the reform campaigns provided a unique opportunity to escape the confines of the home and enter public affairs, In part the practical, activist Christianity of reformers resulted from desire to reaffirm traditional values as they plunged in to a world transformed by the market economy, Mainly middle-class descendants of pioneer farmers, they were unaware that were witnessing the dawn of the industrial era and either ignored the factory workers or blamed their problems on bad habits—naïve single-mindedness (virtue to order), Imprisonment for debt continued as the poorer working classes were especially hard hit by this merciless practice—state legislatures gradually abolished debtors’ prisons, Criminal codes in the states were softened, in accord with more enlightened European practices; the number of capital offenses was being reduce and brutal punishments were being slowly eliminated; new view that prisons should reform as well as punish, Sufferers from so-called insanity were still being treated with incredible cruelty; medievalists had believed that the insane were cursed with unclean spirits and the 19, In this dismal picture stepped a New England teacher-author Dorothea Dix; she traveled and assembled reports on insanity and asylums and in her petition of 1843 to the Massachusetts legislature, turned legislative stomachs and hearts (foul conditions), Agitation for peace also gained momentum in the pre-Civil War years, In 1828 the American Peace Society was formed, with a ringing declaration of war on war; a leading spirit was William Ladd who advocated for collective security, The American peace crusade, linked with a European counterpart, was making promising progress by mid-century, but it was set back by the bloodshed of the Crimean War in Europe and the Civil War that occurred in America, The ever-present drink problem attracted dedicated reformers; custom led to excessive drinking of hard liquor, even among women, clergymen, and members of Congress, Heavy drinking decreased the efficiency of labor, and poorly safeguarded machinery operated under the influence of alcohol increased the danger of accidents at work, Drunkenness also fouled the sanctity of the family, threatening the spiritual welfare and physical safety of women and children; drinking hurt the entire family, The American Temperance Society was formed at Boston in 1826; within a few years, a thousand local groups sprang into existence and implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children’s clubs, known as the “Cold Water Army”, Temperance crusaders also made effective use of pictures, pamphlets, and lurid lecturers. Because Republican voters were divided between two candidates, _____ became the new president. Trivia Quiz. These adventuresome years served as a major part in his writing. Ford new he had to make his cars cheaper. Roosevelt believed in the efficiency of trusts unless they created _____. Web. Lived 1807-1882. [image]. He caused a reformation of the public schools, many of the teachers were untrained for that position. Quizlet Learn. The FED was called the "Lender of Last Resort" because: if you were a bank in trouble, you would need a loan from the FED to keep your bank alive. He was a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, a nonconformist, and a close friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson who lived from 1817-1862. Subject. The law set up territorial governments for the Nebraska Territory--dividing it into two territories--Nebraska & Kansas. StudyNotes offers fast, free study tools for AP students. This was his masterpiece. Wilson's program to destroy monopolies and limit government power was called _____. breaking up trusts; economic freedom was Wilson's goal for equal chances for all businesses. Americans were quick to provide needed supplies and financial support for the colonial army. " He succeeded professor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow as teacher of modern languages at Harvard. Lowell lived from 1819 to 1891. Created. What did progressives think needed to play a more active role in solving society's problems? Choose from 500 different sets of quiz us history chapter 6 amsco flashcards on Quizlet. You just finished Chapter 15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860. Born in Connecticut.

It caused bitterness between the North and the South.
To counter Senate corruption, progressives called for the _____ election of senators by all state voters rather than election by the state legislatures.


Snake Game Hacked, Archer C1200 Bridge Mode, David Brent: Life On The Road Watch Online 123movies, Lola Collective Reviews, Mexican Artifacts For Sale, Chris Baxter Love Island Dad, Forgiven Roland Joffé, Rice Bran Porridge Recipe, Noble Design And Build Sheffield Reviews, Jojo Part 4 Op 4, Minnesota Whitecaps Salary, Abkc Dna Test, Which Premier League Team Should I Support Quiz, Black Pearls Ark Crystal Isles, Monte Knox Kiffin, Is Amir Blumenfeld Married, Discord Bots Groovy, G Dep Release Date, Dometic Rm1350 Recall, Holley Terminator X Install, Cold Steel Srk Vs Gerber Strongarm, Why Did Hermione Baddeley Leave Maude, Marine Lloris Instagram, Esteban Suite Life Full Name, Gazelle Cityzen T10 Speed Propel, Bald Remix Instrumental, Berger Shetland Adulte à Vendre,