This would lead you to conclude that it is “more” genetic than environmental.

I loved it."

This means that when genes and environment work together, the effects can be more than additive. Being nice has also been evolutionarily selected for, in both animals and humans. Sapolsky's storytelling concept is delightful but it also has a powerful intrinsic logic: he starts by looking at the factors that bear on a person's reaction in the precise moment a behavior occurs, and then hops back in time from there, in stages, ultimately ending up at the deep history of our species and its evolutionary legacy.

ISBN10: 1594205078

It’s not just a more powerful brain that allows us to speak and listen.

Humans are…the only species that can commit violence…simply by pulling a trigger…[and] the only species capable of passive-aggressive behavior. There is no environment that will teach a chimp to speak. Even though genes have everything to do with the fact that you have five fingers per hand, whether or not you have five fingers per hand depends almost entirely on the environment. As was discussed above, no single gene can be said to cause anything.

Finally, he expands the view to encompass factors larger than one individual. This is because evolution is a tinkerer, not an inventor. It lights up when we experience pain, but it also lights up when somebody we care about experiences pain. Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, Third Edition, Big Brother, the Tea Party, Occupiers, and a Partridge in a Pear Tree, Practical Engineering and Statistics Updates, Robert Sapolsky give twenty five lectures.

Infants [prefer] looking at…characters who display courteous behavior. They do it with a simple set of rules and a lot of ants. It’s all about the variability in the genes or the environment.

Furthermore, the emphasis on competition ignores the selective pressure of the environment, which can often be much more important than intraspecies behavior.
Chaos theory came along and destroyed that notion. Crucially, it isn’t the simplest structure you could possibly imagine inventing. Males focus on passing on more of their genes primarily by investing as much energy as possible in their offspring. The problem becomes exponentially more difficult each time a new point is added to the network. Once we intuitively understand that filling is something that we do to cups and pouring is something that we do to water, our brain understands how to fit this into the existing grammatical structure without ever being told how.

There are still enough categories left to describe the same thing.

…the behavior of a chaotic system can only be understood if every step is calculated. These people have the ability to understand moral rules, but they don’t have the capacity to inhibit their own behavior in order to follow those rules. Strangely, the amygdala also controls male sexual motivation, which explains why males are more sexually aggressive on average.

This means that most of the information isn’t actually coded in the genes themselves. Wiki Bio of Robert Sapolsky net worth is updated in 2020.

Thankfully, there is a flip side to the equation. The result is one of the most dazzling tours d'horizon of the science of human behavior ever attempted, a majestic synthesis that harvests cutting-edge research across a range of disciplines to provide a subtle and nuanced perspective on why we ultimately do the things we do...for good and for ill. Sapolsky builds on this understanding to wrestle with some of our deepest and thorniest questions relating to tribalism and xenophobia, hierarchy and competition, morality and free will, and war and peace. A byproduct of this is that every tiny little evolutionary advantage no longer makes that great a difference, reducing the emphasis on competition. The same goes for weapons, and even genocide.

This harnesses something called swarm intelligence. If you can get away with cheating, you should.

It seems to be a fundamental aspect of the way life organizes itself. Every time an answer is discovered, half a dozen more interesting questions arise. In a tournament species, about ten percent of the males account for ninety percent of the mating. There is also a good chance that we are the only species capable of feeling empathy for another species. To this day, nobody is entirely sure how.

There is no gene that won’t change the way it is expressed when under an extreme enough environment.

The crucial thing to understand is that aggression doesn’t offend us because of its intensity, it almost always offends us because of its context. They aren’t born knowing how to orgasm, but it’s uncontroversial that orgasms are hard-wired. Emergence occurs when that complexity is adaptive and beneficial. Height: 1.60IN Width: 6.60IN Illustration: Yes Author: Robert M Sapolsky Author: Robert M. Sapolsky.

Humans show a remarkably flexible ability to decide who is or isn’t family, regardless of shared genes.

Most of the science of evolution was laid down by men, and it wasn’t until relatively recently that women started to point out all the much more subtle ways in which women compete with one another. So what do we mean when we say that chaotic systems are unpredictable? A child raised by parents who had the disease, whose biological parents had the disease, had a 17% chance of getting the disease.

The more experience somebody had with aggression, the more aggressive they will be without testosterone. We will see soon just how intricate the structure of the brain is, long before it receives information from the environment. Definitely pretend you never heard anybody say that animals do things for the good of the species. Evolution is about passing on the most copies of your genes into the next generation.

Robert Sapolsky body measurments, height, weight and age details.

It plays a very important role in motivation and addiction. We learn when to be aggressive, and when not to. A behavior occurs--whether an example of humans at our best, worst, or somewhere in between. Not only is DNA arranged in an enormously intertwined network, but it can be influenced from the outside. It’s goal is to control the hypothalamus, but there is a catch. They have the power to inhibit one another.

All the change occurs when DNA networks are reconnected and combined in new and interesting ways. Providing his lectures with a healthy dose of humor, he has compressed some of the most interesting information in the field into a single course.

Replace 10% or 200% of the testosterone, and you get the same amount of aggression you would have at 100%.
It is like asking whether the area of a rectangle has more to do with its length or its height. It turns out this isn’t true. In some species, males will even resort to killing other male’s children in order to improve their own reproductive success. It may also have something to do with why males are more likely to confuse dominance and exploitation with sex.

Different words, of course, but the same structure. We have the capacity to empathize with people we have never met, and there certainly isn’t any other species capable of empathizing with fictitious characters. A system can be very simple, yet still be unpredictable. To see where this goes wrong, think of earring wearing behavior in the 1950s. By the next generation, the pigeon language evolves into something called a creole language, which is a brand new, fully intact language.

I urge all of you to give the lectures a try, and to take a look at his book, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers.


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