Native people had long ago been exposed to smallpox and many tribes had means of treating and quarantining sick patients. The Proclamation of 1763 drew a line from the northernmost tip of Maine to the southernmost parts of Georgia and compelled colonists to remain to the east of this line. Though the western Indians did not win Pontiac’s War, they succeeded in fundamentally altering the British government’s Indian policy.

In 1754, Benjamin Franklin suggested a plan of union to coordinate colonial defenses on a continental scale. Relationships between colonists and Native Americans were complex and often violent. Whatever the justification for the restrictions, they were a new exercise of royal power and limited the authority of both governors and colonial assemblies. When Delaware people attacked Fort Pitt, General Amherst ordered retaliation in the form of blankets used at Fort Pitt in treating smallpox patients. It was an answer many wanted to hear and fit with self-conceptions of the new nation, albeit one that imagined itself as white, male, and generally Protestant. Britain was now firmly established as the European authority in North America. …the Indian uprising known as Pontiac’s War. Library of Congress. Therefore, what is commonly called “Pontiac’s War” or “Pontiac’s Rebellion” was not quite a unified act of Native American aggression led by one man against the British, but rather a series of skirmishes across a wide area of the Northwest where Pontiac was just one of many Native leaders. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. She has been involved in the A.P. While Parliament had been considering a proclamation line for some time, it was Pontiac’s War that sped up the announcement of this new frontier policy. Whence comes it that ye permit the Whites upon your lands…Drive them out, make war upon them.” Neolin preached the avoidance of alcohol, a return to traditional rituals, and pan-Indian unity to his disciples, including Pontiac, an Ottawa leader. After nearly seven decades of warfare they looked to the newly acquired lands west of the Appalachian Mountains as their reward. In western Pennsylvania, a vigilante group called the Paxton Boys felt their government was not doing enough to protect them from Native American threats of violence. At the war’s conclusion with the Treaty of Paris 1763, Britain gained control of French Canada and all land east of the Mississippi River. The British had not successfully defeated the Native Americans, and in recalling General Amherst back to Great Britain, admitted that the British needed to abandon their demeaning policies and build relationships with the Native people. Didn’t they deserve western land as reward for a long and hard-fought war? Most Native Americans, including Pontiac, saw this not as frugal imperial policy but preparation for war. During the war, the British Crown issued the Royal Proclamation Line of 1763, which marked the Appalachian Mountains as the boundary between Indian country and the British colonies. After the Seven Years War, Britain gained control of formerly French territory as a result of the Treaty of Paris. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed. Of the 11,000 British soldiers present for the French surrender of Montreal in 1760, 6,500 were colonials from every colony north of Pennsylvania.

“Pontiac’s Rebellion” was not quite a unified act of Native American aggression, but rather a series of skirmishes across a wide area of the Northwest against the British. Coinciding with the end of the Seven Year’s War, the effects of Pontiac’s War were substantial and widespread. Though Pontiac did not command all of the Indians participating in the war, his actions were influential in its development. News of the siege quickly spread throughout Indian country and inspired more attacks on British forts and settlers. …organized a combined resistance—known as Pontiac’s War (1763–64)—to British power in the Great Lakes area. The French immigrant Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur articulated this discontent most clearly in his 1782 Letters from an American Farmer when he asked, “What then is the American, this new man?” In other words, why did colonists start thinking of themselves as Americans, not Britons? In June, a coalition of Ottawas and Ojibwes captured Fort Michilimackinac by staging a game of stickball (lacrosse) outside the fort. Pontiac's War, also known as Pontiac's Conspiracy or Pontiac's Rebellion, was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of American Indian tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region following the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Tens of thousands of colonials fought during the war. The county was created in 1785; its name was derived from the title of the eldest son of the king of France. In December of 1763 a group of fifty-seven Paxton Boys killed six Susquehanna people, thinking they had been involved in Pontiac’s Rebellion. Whereas the French had maintained a peaceful and relatively equal relationship with their Indian allies through trade, the British hoped to profit from and impose “order.” For example, the French often engaged in the Indian practice of diplomatic gift giving. Pontiac took Neolin’s words to heart and sparked the beginning of what would become known as Pontiac’s War against British soldiers, traders, and settlers. Tens of thousands of British soldiers served in America, and 10,000 were left to garrison the conquests in Canada and the Ohio Valley at a cost of £100,000.

To enforce these unpopular measures, Britain implemented increasingly restrictive policies that eroded civil liberties like protection from unlawful searches and jury trials. However, the British General Jeffrey Amherst discouraged this practice and regulated the trade or sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians. However, the policy changes that the British introduced due to the violent conflict, such as the Proclamation of 1763, laid the groundwork for what would become the American Revolution. Native American warriors attacked British forts and frontier settlements, killing as many as 400 soldiers and 2000 settlers.
The French gave gifts to Native American leaders, which promoted the status of the leader within their group; this created strong alliances between French and Native American tribes.

Pontiac’s War, or Pontiac’s Rebellion, began in the Great Lakes region of North America in 1763. Peace was not the result. Pontiac’s War, or Pontiac’s Rebellion, began in the Great Lakes region of North America in 1763. The French had long followed a Native American practice of presenting gifts (such as gun-powder, kettles, and clothing) to Native American leaders who would then distribute these goods to their people.
Consumption and trade, an important bond between Britain and the colonies, was being threatened. To do this, Parliament started legislating over all the colonies in a way rarely done before. The French and Indian War had been a clash between the French and British empires for control of North America.


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