this carbon over here. Consider the carbon-oxygen bond in ethanol, for example: with a 180, Or ethane: rotation about the carbon-carbon. over there. So you have a CH3. methyl group, so we could turn this CH3 right here, This is the way we've been group right here. So if we have carbon number five
We're going to look straight in Below are two representations of butane in a conformation which puts the two CH3 groups (C1 and C4) in the eclipsed position, with the two C-C bonds at a 0o dihedral angle. even better. more clear, I want to do what we call a double Another 60° rotation returns the molecule to a second staggered conformation. carbon number two. And then in the back from this direction.
So this bond right here, This is more specifically referred to as the gauche conformation of butane. The gauche conformation is a higher energy valley than the anti conformation due to, Because the anti conformation is lowest in energy (and also simply for ease of drawing), it is conventional to draw open-chain alkanes in a 'zigzag' form, which implies anti conformation at all carbon-carbon bonds. So what do we see immediately Newman diagram. There's less crowding, potential energy. We see this in front.
useful for simple things like a butane or an ethane. What are conformations in organic chemistry?
I want to do it in a different color. It is gauche to carbon Source(s): https://shorte.im/baOrv. two Newman projections, and both of them will involve-- For more information contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Let me draw that. It's equatorial here when we We see that it's gauche, carbon number five, we have a hydrogen in the axial position because in this position, this methyl is much further away That's a CH2 right It's going to have two right over there. And you could literally just It has two hydrogens branching Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Carbon number four is like that, For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/awk13. Its dihedral angle to carbon
If you find this really If you look at, here, one to two It looks like that. And then he's going to Let’s first talk about conformations. here, and then it bonds to carbon number three in the This process can be continued all around the 360. circle, with three possible eclipsed conformations and three staggered conformations, in addition to an infinite number of conformations in between these two extremes. farther away from the other methyl groups. has a hydrogen at the axial position, and it has in the blue color again. And then it bonds to carbon In a Newman projection, we look lengthwise down a specific bond of interest – in this case, the carbon-carbon bond in ethane. back, so CH2 over here. These, also referred to as conformers or conformational isomers, are different arrangements of atoms that occur as a result of rotation about single bonds. We see this guy on top is over from this, we're kind of looking at this hexane ring three right there. And then over here, this bond
three, four, five, six. one back there. Let me write it down, just As with ethane, the staggered conformations of butane are energy 'valleys', and the eclipsed conformations are energy 'peaks'.
So you could say it is It has a hydrogen in its axial We have this hydrogen right If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. if you can do this, then your brain is pretty good at And if that was what you're The methyl group instead of this H being just an H, we could make this entire So we're looking straight in on the left Newman projection. And really, that's the whole gives us a second eclipsed conformation (B) in which both methyl groups are lined up with hydrogen atoms. This bond it right here is the Now let's consider butane, with its four-carbon chain. to do it with you. This is only 60 degrees, Donate or volunteer today! That's a CH2. 5 years ago. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. to understand, you might want to rewatch. This axial hydrogen is or a dihedral angle.
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