If available, manipulate the tibia and pes to observe this. In man, psoas runs from the ventral surfaces of lumbar vertebrae where it is joined by iliacus, running from the inner surface of the ilium, to form a joint tendon that inserts into the lesser trochanter of the femur. The pectineus muscle attaches proximally to the pubis (superior ramus) passing distally to attach to the pectineal line on the upper medial aspect of the femur. Click on each category of cookies to enable or disable their use. In the rat the second digit has its own adductor (not the case in man), and there are no dorsal interossei in the rat hindfoot (Parsons, 1896). It forms the medial protrusion of the ankle. These comprise three muscles, biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. Its proximal surface bears lateral and medial condyles that articulate with the femur. Attachments: From the anterior and lower surfaces of the greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line of femur, gluteal tuberosity, lateral intermuscular septum and lateral lip of linea aspera to insert into the lateral border of the patella and continue distal to the patella (as the patellar tendon or patellar ligament) to attach to the tibial tuberosity. As part of e-learning when you watch a video, our service provider Vimeo files cookies to your browser. Interest in these small muscles is likely to limited, not just among toxicologists. In the rat, gluteus maximus blends with another muscle, tensor fasciae latae, which is attached to the strong fascia running down the outer side of the thigh. For some of them, your consent is necessary. The pes (Figure 7.24) consists of tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Click on the structure to specify the target of your label, Other Terms: For distal femoral shafts, the shaft widens distally and the lateral supracondylar ridge is more prominent than the medial. The femur (Figure 7.22) is the bone of the proximal part of the hind limb, or thigh. The first is strongly reduced to a small nub that articulates with the medial cuneiform.

The gluteal muscles run from the outer surface of the ilium to the great trochanter of the femur, and extend the leg at the hip joint. It is a smooth, shallow trough oriented proximodistally. Attachments: From the inferior ramus of the pubis to the upper third of the medial lip of the linea aspera. It ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle, the adductor tubercle, which affords insertion to the tendon of the Adductor magnus. A small muscle, the popliteus, lies in the notch and is a flexor of the knee joint. Four muscles; rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis, make up the muscle usually referred to as the quadriceps femoris. His contempt for such trifles is recorded in his reply to the lady who asked him why he had done this: ‘Ignorance, Madam, sheer ignorance’ But movement of the ankle joint also presents what Winston Churchill would no doubt have called further terminological inexactitudes.

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