Língua mista é também considerado por Atkins o Bângala, resultado da interferência intensa entre o Quimbundo e o Quioco, e que se situa na fronteira entre estas duas línguas. [mic]. Summary Speakers sing the Brazilian popular song "O sapo não lava o pé" and then tell DOC where they learned it. Bulletin des études portugaises et brésiliennes 42 (43): Angola: encontros com escritores. Their language does not appear in documents of the time, but it is unlikely that this rudimentary Portuguese was much different than present-day phenomena under similar circumstances. It is the similar development of negation marking strategies in BVP and French that ultimately explains why the pre-verbal não in BVP, unlike that in EP, is no longer an obligatory negative marker. 12) Despite the aforementioned interest in the comparison of AVP to BVP, this line of investigation was not followed by most of the relatively few linguists working on AVP in the 2000s, especially Angolan linguists, who reduced the scope of their work and focused on the description of AVP itself, which they define as a variety in the making. Concerning number and gender agreement in the noun phrase in AVP, an analysis of this sort could be of great help to our understanding of whether it is the random result of imperfect acquisition of Portuguese, which is the generally accepted theory, or whether it is the continuation of phonological and morphosyntactic mechanisms previously used in a language contact situation, i.e. Inf Quem, eu? DOC 213 Ah! In fact, leftmost elements do tend to attract plural number marking in DVP, regardless of whether they are the first element in a compound noun, as in (82) and (83), or the complex head of the noun phrase, as in (84) and (85): (82) a. DVP: Afro-s-americano_ Afro-PL-American.M Afro-Americans b. EP: Afro-americano-s Afro-American-PL Afro-Americans (83) a. DVP: guarda-s-chuva keep-pl-rain umbrellas b. EP: guarda-chuva-s keep-rain-pl umbrellas (84) a. DVP: há coisas que ele-s próprio_ exigem exist things that 3PL self demand there are things they themselves demand b. EP: há coisas que ele-s próprio-s exigem exist things that 3PL self-pl demand there are things they themselves demand (85) a. DVP: você-s branco_ tem bué de dinheiro you-pl white have much of money you whites have lots of money b. EP: você-s branco-s têm muito dinheiro you-pl white-pl have much money you whites have lots of money In fact, it is the attraction of plural number marking by the leftmost elements in the noun phrase that seems to account for those instances in which the head noun in DVP is exceptionally marked for number, as in (86) and (87) below: (86) a. DVP: em Angola temos muita-s língua-s materna_ in Angola have many-pl language-pl maternal there are many mother tongues in Angola 161, 177 CHAPTER 4 CONTACT-INDUCED TENDENCIES IN DVP S NOUN PHRASE b. EP: em Angola temos muita-s língua-s maternal-s in Angola have many-pl language-pl maternal- PL there are many mother tongues in Angola (87) a. DVP: uma da-s língua-s mais falada_ one of:the.f-pl language-pl more spoken [Portuguese] is one of the most widely spoken languages [in the world] b. EP: uma da-s língua-s mais falada-s one of:the.f-pl language-pl more spoken-pl [Portuguese] is one of the most widely spoken languages [in the world] Similar instances in which the head noun is atypically marked for number have been attested in the literature on other varieties of AVP, as illustrated in (88) below: (88) a. DVP: conheço outra-s ciência-s auxiliar_ (Cabral 2005: 31) know other.f-pl science-pl auxiliary I know other auxiliary sciences b. EP: conheço outra-s ciência-s auxiliar-es know other.f-pl science-pl Auxiliary-PL I know other auxiliary sciences In fact, there is evidence in the literature that the tendency to only mark number in the leftmost elements in the noun phrase is not restricted to DVP but can be found in all varieties of the vernacular Portuguese spoken in Angola and Brazil (cf. 29 ^M. On the one hand, linguists remarks on this topic are often too brief and simplistic, as illustrated by the two following quotes: Sendo a distinção sexual inexistente em Kimbundu, os locutores da variante [i.e. 90, 106 CHAPTER 3 A SOCIOLINGUISTIC HISTORY OF ANGOLA AND LUNDA NORTE Portugal s first official contacts with Ndongo occurred at King Ngola's request, first in 1520 and later on in On both occasions Ngola revealed his interest in converting to Christianity and establishing a political and commercial agreement with Portugal, but when the Portuguese ambassador arrived at his court in Kabasa, he changed his mind and took the envoys hostage. This was confirmed not only by 209, 225 CHAPTER 5 CONTACT-INDUCED TENDENCIES IN DVP S VERB PHRASE TABLE 29. [getting up] Ah! Miguel 1997), gender, tense, mode, aspect and textual cohesion (Costa 1997) or prepositional phrases (Cabral 2005). Essai d hybridologie linguistique. The fact that all lexical objects may be expressed by object markers inside the verb is consistent with the hypothesis that Cokwe is an OM-2 language according to Bearth s (2006: 124) typology. Damn, my bitch is bad, when she walks in que diante de alguém que não saiba 311 falar essa língua, nós comunicarmos numa outra língua, 312 para não criar aquela discrepância, aquela desconfiança. Inf A seguir outro filho tem treze ano... três. Dundo s public library PICTURE 9. the definition of error given Chapter 1, section 1.5.2). Aikhenvald defines it as follows: Noun classes or genders are grammaticalized agreement systems which correlate at least in part with certain semantic characteristics (particularly in the domain of human and animate referents). DOC 169 Então amanhã depois, depois trazem o... trazem o pequenito. Section 1.1 provides a brief profile of Angola and a description of the current sociolinguistic situation in the country. After a number of generations some varieties lose all but a few vestiges of their creole features (those not found in the superstrate) through decreolization, resulting in post-creole varieties such as (according to some) African American Vernacular English or Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese. An analysis of the data carried out in section 5.6 identified three morphosyntactic phenomena that are attested in the corpus but for which there are insufficient data to allow any definite conclusions concerning their origin and degree of dissemination among the population in Dundo: lexical marking of TMA categories in DVP, the use of the verb ter 304, 320 CHAPTER 5 CONTACT-INDUCED TENDENCIES IN DVP S VERB PHRASE to have with existential meaning and the omission of the preposition a in periphrastic constructions. 28, 44 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION MAP 5 Cokwe-speaking areas in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia (Wastiau 2006: 6) Firstly, sources were produced in different periods and may therefore represent different stages of development of the language. Inf Ãhã DOC 187 ^R quê? borrowings, abstract entities, mass nouns, collective nouns, deverbal nouns and nouns denoting irrational entities 12. 26 In fact, this is the explanation advanced in Gärtner (1989: 43) to account for the use of lhe as a direct object marker in Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese (BVP). # INF #2 Eu brinco, eu quando saio da escola brinco com bonecas. The turning point in the study of language contact in Africa in general and of noncreole varieties of Portuguese in particular arrived in the mid 1970s, following the independence of most Portuguese ex-colonies.

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