tions in the climate are not very complex. Local rainfall is convective, modulated by the semi- permanent anticyclone over southern Africa and easterly waves, and is subject to the well-documented 18-year oscillation of the subcontinental interior. Although the total renewable groundwater, water resource, local exploitation can lead to mining of, The development of surface water in Botswana is con-, strained by a number of factors such as its low and erratic, run-off, lack of available dam sites, and high rates of evap-, oration.
In the case of Botswana, 94%, of the fresh water originates outside its borders and this, contributes to the vulnerability of the country in many ways, (Van Wyk, 1998). Conley, A.H., 1996: The need to develop the water resources of Two types of wet-, lands can be found in Botswana: swamps, which can be, described as perennial, deep fresh-water situations, (Okavango) and endorheic pans (Makgadikgadi Pans). Data was collected as part of a gen-. results are then incorporated into economic models allowing us to From, that point, the two rivers combine to form the Okavango, River which then turns southwards again and ends in the, inland Okavango Delta in Botswana [FAO, 1997].

The Ramsar, Convention Hachileka 2003, this issue, attempts to slow, down the loss of wetlands and promote sustainable use for, the benefit of mankind, creating a framework for develop-. Clean water is a challenge in water stress semi-arid country like Botswana. The rural nature of the uplands has, however, meant that the urban-dwelling decision makers have preferred to see them unplanned (see Davidson and Wibberley, 1977), except where planning protects them from the urban expansion. According to Kgathi (1999), policies on water resources. the mining company). Figure 2: Major river basins of southern Africa (from Conley, 1996). Chief’s Island is also the prime place to see rhino and big cats – lions, leopards and cheetahs are all regularly sighted here. All of these catchments respond very sensitively to changes in climate and land management, revealing additional issues like a strong decline of inflow (Gaborone Dam) or a decline of usable groundwater resources (Verlorenvlei). projections. south-eastern Botswana (Ashton pers. stored in a number of dams which serve these towns. The presented study uses land use and land use change products as input to the process-based distributed hydrological model JAMS/J2000 in order to estimate the impact of land use change with special emphasis on the development of farm dams. In the eastern, part of the country, where more than 80% of the population. Rural and, remote towns are often entirely dependent upon groundwater, except in cases such as Kasane on the lower Chobe-Zambezi, River and Mohembo and Shakawe on the Okavango River, Water is a scarce resource in Botswana that undoubtedly, needs good planning which should take into consideration. At the current rates of abstraction, the lifetime of surface and groundwater resources is limited to decades. Policies on water supply and demand, will be investigated in terms of the equitable distribution of, the resources in relation to the areas of demand, sharing of, international river basins and the agreements related to sus-, tainable utilisation of these potential renewable water, resources in Botswana, as well as the various regional fac-, tors influencing management decisions (such as the climate, and population growth). exceeds supply (DWAF, 2004). The Director of Water Affairs is, the Registrar of the Water Apportionment Board and acts as, Technical Adviser to the Board. Arntzen, J.W. 52% in the next three decades, while water supply will deteriorate (Zhuwakinyu, 2012). It, is estimated that approximately 19% of the MAR is already. There are many elephants, and they are often covered in red dust, giving them an eerie appearance.The park is also known for its maneless lions and big herds of buffalo. Similar strategies and methods should be introduced to, assure the sustainability of the quality of surface water, Despite being a dry country, Botswana has two important, wetland systems, the Okavango Delta and the, Makgadikgadi Pans. Catchments (Summerton et al., 2010; Warburton et al., 2012).

“Our findings have important implications to land-use planning in southern Africa’s dryland river ecosystems,” said corresponding author Kathleen Alexander, associate professor of fish and wildlife conservation in the college and a Fralin Life Science Institute affiliate. We first present a hybrid approach that extends In addition, the Strategic southern African countries’ population growth rates and, therefore, these estimates of population growth and accom-. and Kgathi, D.L (in press) . It is also possible to augment the, supply of water to Gaborone from the Molatedi Dam on the. Climatic conditions such as drought and floods play an important role in animal movements. Patterns of water quality decline were compared to animal densities, both domestic and wildlife species, fecal counts along the riparian zone, and land characteristics. During the wet season the waters of the Delta spread out like the roots of a tree, but as the dry season bites the waters begin to recede, pulling many migratory species and their predators back towards the north-western corner of Botswana, and leaving many others to roam a maze of island havens further out in the Delta.

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