[4], A toned-down version of Krampus is part of the popular Christmas markets in Austrian urban centres like Salzburg. Unlike North American versions of Santa Claus, in these celebrations Saint Nicholas concerns himself only with the good children, while Krampus is responsible for the bad. Sometimes Krampus appears with a sack or a basket strapped to his back; this is to cart off evil children for drowning, eating, or transport to Hell. These characters include: Krampus, Saint Nikolaus, the woodsman, angels, and the old woman.

He marks his initiates with one of his horns. His long, pointed tongue lolls out,[4][16] and he has fangs. [citation needed] Krampus has also adorned postcards and candy containers. The Four Horned Jacob Sheep typically carries 2 pairs of horns in both the male and female.

He is represented as a three-horned goat, with a black human face. He is represented as a three-horned goat, with black human face. These Styrian companions of Krampus are called Schabmänner or Rauhen. Price List. Several Krampus costume instructional YouTube videos are available.[32][33][34][35][36]. The chains could have been introduced in a Christian attempt to 'bind the Devil' but again they could be a remnant of pagan initiation rites.[4]. People would masquerade as a devilish figure known as Percht, a two-legged humanoid goat with a giraffe-like neck, wearing animal furs. The most traditional Krampus costumes are made from goat/sheep skins, animal horns, and hand carved masks. Discussing his observations in 1975 while in Irdning, a small town in Styria, anthropologist John J. Honigmann wrote that: The Saint Nicholas festival we are describing incorporates cultural elements widely distributed in Europe, in some cases going back to pre-Christian times.

Painted Desert Ram. He thrashes the chains for dramatic effect.

In traditional parades and in such events as the Krampuslauf (English: Krampus run), young men dressed as Krampus participate. Perchtenlaufs were looked at with suspicion by the Catholic Church and banned by some civil authorities.
[4] This quality can be found in other Companions of Saint Nicholas such as Zwarte Piet. Daniel 8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

In some, Krampus has sexual overtones; he is pictured pursuing buxom women.

Related: A24's Best Horror Movies, Ranked The Witch's main antagonist is actually the family's distinctive horned goat Black Phillip, who is revealed to be Satan in disguise. The chains are sometimes accompanied with bells of various sizes. [12], The Krampus tradition is being revived in Bavaria as well, along with a local artistic tradition of hand-carved wooden masks.

[25], In Cave del Predil, in the northern part of the Udine province in Italy, an annual Krampus festival is held in early December. Nicholas dispenses gifts, while Krampus supplies coal and the Ruten bundles.[20]. Europeans have been exchanging greeting cards featuring Krampus since the 1800s. As a part of a tradition, when a child receives a gift from St. Nicholas he is given a golden branch to represent his good deeds throughout the year; however, if the child has misbehaved, Krampus will take the gifts for himself and leave only a silver branch to represent the child's bad acts. Origin: Syria Horn Size: 32-40 inches Weight: 120-180 pounds Estimated World Population: 5,000 Jacob Sheep have a colorful and unique history and are even capable of growing up to six horns! Krampus is often featured looming menacingly over children. Daniel 11:4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those. Sometimes introduced with Gruß vom Krampus (Greetings from Krampus), the cards usually have humorous rhymes and poems. In common Wiccan belief, he is associated with nature, wilderness, sexuality, hunting, and the life cycle. ", "Who is Krampus? A seasonal play that spread throughout the Alpine regions was known as the Nikolausspiel ("Nicholas play"). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonard_(demon)&oldid=881953250, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable entry on Master Leonard, This page was last edited on 5 February 2019, at 21:46. In recent years, the myth that the Krampus was the son of Hel, Norse goddess of the underworld, has been popularised on the internet, even appearing in articles in National Geographic and Smithsonian Magazine. Black banquets are thrown in Leonard's honor where aborted kid goats are eaten without salt and boiled with reptiles to sully the sinless nature of the clean meat. Gallery. Countries of the former Habsburg Empire have largely borrowed the tradition of Krampus accompanying St. Nicholas on 5 December from Austria. Any child resulting from this union will be stillborn, an offering for sin, again echoing loosely the story of Aaron. 22 The four horns that replaced the broken one represent four kingdoms that will rise from that nation, but will not have the same power. Such events occur annually in most Alpine towns. The character of Krampus has been imported and modified for various North American media,[37][38] including print (e.g. Explaining the Horrific Christmas Devil", "Joines & Kotz's "Krampus!" The birch – apart from its phallic significance – may have a connection with the initiation rites of certain witch-covens; rites which entailed binding and scourging as a form of mock-death. He is also shown as having one human foot and one cloven hoof. In the 1950s, the government distributed pamphlets titled "Krampus Is an Evil Man". With her entire family dead, Thomasin decides to embrace the witch label forced upon her and speaks with Black Phillip. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power. [41])–video games (CarnEvil, a 1998 arcade game,[42] The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth, a 2014 video game[43]), and film (Krampus, a 2015 Christmas comedy horror movie from Universal Pictures[44]). Eventually the Perchtenlauf, inspired by the Nicholas plays, introduced Saint Nicholas and his set of good morals. [28][29][30][31], Costumed characters are a central part of all Krampus celebrations. New Zealand Red Stag. Sable. The goat-headed figure is called ‘Baphomet’, which represents the deity of Satanist and the power of darkness. Da Dn) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools.

So Where's He From? 4 Horned Sheep. The same idea also appeared shortly afterwards in two online games by the Norwegian games producer Funcom. [21] People wore costumes and marched in processions known as Perchtenlaufs, which are regarded as any earlier form of the Krampus runs. A large literature, much of it by European folklorists, bears on these subjects. [4][27], In many parts of Croatia, Krampus is described as a devil wearing a cloth sack around his waist and chains around his neck, ankles, and wrists. Props commonly used are; bells, a birch switch, basket worn on the back, chains, walking staff, and a horse hair or hemp flogger. [1], Krampus carries chains, thought to symbolize the binding of the Devil by the Christian Church. Austrians in the community we studied are quite aware of "heathen" elements being blended with Christian elements in the Saint Nicholas customs and in other traditional winter ceremonies. 10 But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness. Klaubauf Austria, while Bartl or Bartel, Niglobartl, and Wubartl are used in the southern part of the country. More often they are made with modern and less costly materials, such as: fake fur and latex masks.

[citation needed], North American Krampus celebrations are a growing phenomenon. Leonard has been known to take other forms, and there is some connection to the legend of the werewolf; he has been known to appear as a handsome soldier, a favorite of many demons. Infernal powers obtained from the worship of Master Leonard range from metamorphosis into monstrous animals or men to flight as an incubus. [15], Although Krampus appears in many variations, most share some common physical characteristics. In the aftermath of the 1932 election in Austria, the Krampus tradition was prohibited by the Dollfuss regime[10] under the Fatherland's Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Christian Social Party. Evo tko je Krampus koji ju je ostavio", "Krampus nije baš tako loš kao što se čini, on samo opominje", "FOTO: Sveti Nikola i Krampus stigli su morem i nagradili dobru djecu", "The Making of Krampus, for the Krampus run in Salzburg Austria", "Who Is Krampus? Leonard or "Master Leonard" is a demon or spirit in the Dictionnaire Infernal, grand-master of the nocturnal orgies of demons. Nicholas.

The 4 Horn Jacob Sheep dates back to 3000 years ago from Syria. [21] This is a theme that grew in Alpine regions where the Roman Catholic Church had significant influence. [26], Similar figures are recorded in neighboring areas. Terrorizes Christmas at Image", "You'd Better Watch Out: Krampus Is Coming to Town", "Fiction Previews, November 2012, Pt. Krampus mit Kind ("Krampus with a child") postcard from around 1911, Krampus and Saint Nicholas visit a Viennese home in 1896, Nikolaus and Krampus in Austria in the early 20th century, A Krampus from Sveti Martin na Muri, northern Croatia, at local carnival in Čakovec (2015), A St. Nicholas procession with Krampus, and other characters, c. 1910, St. Nikolaus with 12 Krampuses in Berchtesgadener Land, Germany (2016), A modern Krampus at the Perchtenlauf in Klagenfurt (2006), This article is about the folklore figure. Some of the older versions make mention of naughty children being put in the bag and taken away. [3] Krampus is featured on holiday greeting cards called Krampuskarten. [11] Towards the end of the century, a popular resurgence of Krampus celebrations occurred and continues today. He is also mentioned in Eliphas Levi’s (1810-1875) Ritual of Transcendental Magic (published 1896), Chapter XV, … He marked his novitiates with one of his horns.- Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Levi's Baphomet/ Goat of Mendes. As Krampus is half-goat and half-demon, the costume normally shares certain primary elements such as: a fur suit, horns, demon mask, and hooves. Due to sparse population and rugged environments within the Alpine region, the ban was not effective or easily enforced, rendering the ban useless. There is mention of a "Master Leonard" in the Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (published 1898) in association with the alleged deity of the Templars, the Baphomet or "Goat of Mendes". [24], In Styria, the Ruten bundles are presented by Krampus to families. In Central European folklore, Krampus is a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as "half-goat, half-demon",[1] who, during the Christmas season, punishes children who have misbehaved. Explaining the horrific Christmas beast", "The Origin of Krampus, Europe's Evil Twist on Santa", "Krampus disliked in Fascist Austria; Genial Black and Red Devil, Symbol of Christmas Fun, Is Frowned Upon", "Austria struggles with marauding Krampus demons gone rogue: Police record rising violence and drunkenness in relation to traditional folkloric festivities", "Horror for the Holidays: Meet the Anti Santa", "Horror for the Holidays: Meet the Anti-Santa", "Dobili ste šibu u čizmici?

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